Tuesday, February 3, 2015

Frederick Lawrence Pomeroy (1855-1906): scofflaw or scapegoat? Part 2

by Nancy Maliwesky

Note: APHGA has joined NewYorkHeritage.org, an online research site for New York history offering collections from New York libraries, historical societies, museums and archives. View our online collection here. Nancy wrote about the collection last year after completing its transcription. – Susan Hughes 

The Frederick Lawrence Pomeroy Collection is an aggregate of three separate eBay purchases.  Of these three purchases, at least two came from the same seller.  One contains seven letters of condolence written to Pomeroy’s boss at the New York Central Railroad, Francis La Bau, on various other railroad company’s letterheads.  The second, and smallest, is a group of four letters written to Pomeroy by business acquaintances on the occasion of the birth of his only child, a son, Frederick Jr.  The largest group contains 66 pieces.   The letters in this group were written between 1877 and 1916 with the majority written in 1906, the year Pomeroy died, and afterwards.  Upon first reviewing the entire collection, it seemed to me that it belonged to Pomeroy’s widow, Ophelia Taylor Williams Pomeroy, as most of the letters were written to her by her friend, distant relative and pastor, Reverend Albert J. Lyman, of the South Congregational Church in Brooklyn, NY.  But, on closer inspection, I now wonder who in fact saved these letters. 

The collection contains six letters of condolence written to Frederick Jr., one letter and one telegram of condolence written to “the family”, but no letters of condolence written to the widow, causing me to wonder whether the letters may have been saved by Frederick Jr., not Ophelia.  There is also a series of correspondence, starting in 1888, between Pomeroy and Rev. Lyman regarding Pomeroy’s reluctance to join the South Congregational Church.  He did eventually join and soon after served on the Board of Trustees.  There is also an interesting exchange of letters and telegrams between Rev. Lyman and Pomeroy in which Lyman asks if Pomeroy could have a train make a special stop for Lyman and his bride on their wedding day [see photos].

It is evident in the letters written by Rev. Lyman that Ophelia Pomeroy was very active in the South Congregational Church. Included in this collection are a few letters from other church members and some literature regarding foreign missions. Because we are only privy to one side of these conversations, we end up learning more about Rev. Lyman than we do about Ophelia or Frederick. Also, due to the conventions of the day these letters, full of allusions to events and people, remain frustratingly vague in specifics.  The authors never directly state what he or she means – although in the case of the good Reverend, he ends up saying little to nothing but spends a great deal of time and paper saying it!

It would appear from Rev. Lyman’s letters that he was raised in the manner of Victorian etiquette in which a gentleman did not refer to other’s hardships or concerns with any degree of specificity and always flattered a lady.  Even when these social mores changed in the early 20th Century, Rev. Lyman kept this style of writing, at least as evidenced in this collection.

It would certainly be interesting to know who saved these letters, what the entirety of the collection was, and why the seller or sellers decided to split them up.  I find myself wondering whether Ophelia kept earlier correspondence between herself and her husband or her family, and whether there is an archive somewhere that contains Ophelia’s letters to her family and friends.  Because most of these letters are written to Ophelia, I feel that I know more about Ophelia than her husband, and I wonder about her later life.  It does not appear that she ever remarried. In 1940, Ophelia was living with her son and family in Westfield, Union County, NJ, having moved there sometime after 1935.  Prior to that, evidence indicates she lived in Brooklyn. She died about January 1955, and was buried next to her husband in the Green-Wood Cemetery in Brooklyn, NY on 25 January 1955.  Her son died the following year. How did Ophelia fill her days and how different would her life have been had Frederick Pomeroy not died in 1906?  Frederick Lawrence Pomeroy’s trial and subsequent conviction has become a footnote in American business law and history.  But more so than his guilt or innocence, the loss of Frederick Lawrence Pomeroy may best be felt in the way it changed the lives of those around him.

"My Dear Mr Pomeroy. I have an idea that you are practically omniscient in railway matters and I am going to frankly ask whether you can help us out -" Lyman, Albert J. Letter to Frederick Lawrence Pomeroy. 17 June 1902. MS. Frederick Lawrence Pomeroy Collection. American Pomeroy Historic Genealogical Assn., Syracuse, NY. 2010.0307.1.11.

Lyman, Albert J. Letter to Frederick Lawrence Pomeroy. 17 June 1902. MS. Frederick Lawrence Pomeroy Collection. American Pomeroy Historic Genealogical Assn., Syracuse, NY. 2010.0307.1.11a.

Tuesday, January 27, 2015

Frederick Lawrence Pomeroy (1855-1906): scofflaw or scapegoat?

by Nancy Maliwesky

Note: APHGA has joined NewYorkHeritage.org, an online research site for New York history offering collections from New York libraries, historical societies, museums and archives. View our online collection here. Nancy wrote about the collection last year after completing its transcription. – Susan Hughes

Completing the scanning and transcription of the Frederick Lawrence Pomeroy correspondence in our collection for publication on the NewYorkHeritage.org site, I have been trying to identify a theme that would best illustrate this archive. Initially hoping these letters would provide answers to the many questions surrounding the legacy of Frederick (“Fred”) Pomeroy, it seems they pose more questions than answers.  

Frederick Lawrence Pomeroy, born 15 Jan 1855 in Cortland, Cortland County, New York, to James Clark Pomeroy and Olive M. Mills, made a career working in the railroad industry. Early on, he worked as a general passenger agent for the Ogdensburg and Lake Champlain Railroad, then as general freight and ticket agent with the Ithaca and Cortland Railroad, and eventually become an Assistant General Traffic Manager for the New York Central Railroad.  On 25 Oct 1906, Pomeroy, along with the New York Central Railroad, was convicted of granting freight rebates to the American Sugar Refining trust in violation of the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887.  New York Central Railroad was fined $102,000. Pomeroy was personally fined $6,000, the equivalent of about $158,000 today. (For comparison, in 1906 the average worker made between $200 and $400 per year. While a manager like Pomeroy probably commanded a higher salary, even an engineer could only expect about $5,000.[1]) The verdict was widely reported in the news and various trade publications. Tragically, Pomeroy died of a heart attack one month later on 26 Nov 1906 at age 51 while fighting the conviction.

President Theodore Roosevelt earned the nickname “Trust Buster” for his crusade against the exploitive practices of certain captains of industry. But, he also sought to enact laws that would protect workers forced to carry out employer’s policies that were in direct violation of the law, especially when doing so resulted in no personal benefit to those employees. Roosevelt felt that this case in particular was an example of the type of miscarriage of justice he sought to eradicate. In Roosevelt’s 1906 State of the Union Address, he voiced his disapproval of the fine imposed on Pomeroy: 

“…I am forced to the conclusion, in a case in which the proof is so clear and the facts are so flagrant, it is the duty of the court to fix a penalty which shall in some degree be commensurate with the gravity of the offense. As between the two defendants, in my opinion, the principal penalty should be imposed on the corporation. The traffic manager in this case, presumably, acted without any advantage to himself and without any interest in the transaction, either by the direct authority or in accordance with what he understood to be the policy or the wishes of his employer.
'The sentence of this court in this case is, that the defendant Pomeroy, for each of the six offenses upon which he has been convicted, be fined the sum of $1,000, making six fines, amounting in all to the sum of $6,000; and the defendant, The New York Central and Hudson River Railroad Company, for each of the six crimes of which it has been convicted, be fined the sum of $18,000, making six fines amounting in the aggregate to the sum of $108,000, and judgment to that effect will be entered in this case.[2]'" 
Roosevelt pardoned Pomeroy posthumously, assuring that his estate was not liable for the fines.

Our blog readers may be interested to learn that Pomeroy was the nephew of Lemuel Strong Pomeroy[3] (1812-1879) and Dr. Theodore Clapp Pomeroy (1817-1897) and thus a cousin of Harry Dwight Pomeroy (1866-1937).  Captain Stephen Pomeroy, Frederick’s grandfather, was born 6 Aug 1775 in Southampton, Hampshire Co., MA and settled with his wife Hannah “Polly” Clapp in Otisco, Onondaga County, NY by 1806, where he died 23 Dec 1863.  This family has strong roots in the Onondaga, Cortland and Oswego County, New York areas.

In an interesting footnote to previous research published in our blog[4], the pulpit desk made by A.R. & E. L. Shaw of Boston, MA, which resides at the First Presbyterian Church in Cortland, NY with the inscription
was given to the church by Frederick and his sister Louisa Maria Pomeroy Hill in memory of their parents who were members of that church.
Next week: A closer look at the contents of the Frederick Lawrence Pomeroy collection.


Word spread quickly about Pomeroy’s untimely death. The collection contains a number of letters expressing shock and disbelief both from within the company and from outside business contacts. Frederick Lawrence Pomeroy Collection. Image 2010.0307.1.20

Thursday, April 10, 2014

Family Treasures and the Stories They Tell

By Susan M. Hughes

In February 2014 I joined the American Pomeroy Historic Genealogical Association as the new Director. Since coming to Upstate New York 14 year ago, I’ve taught many workshops to diverse audiences. One problem I’ve seen in many archives is how to interpret those non-traditional materials found in collections. The following is adapted from a workshop I developed in answer to that problem. I hope it gives you some insight into your personal collections; not only how to make use of them today, but how to make them speak to future generations.   

Family history is more than just birth, marriage and death dates – it’s the story of your family’s interactions with the community.  Sources for these histories, provided by written documentation as well as oral tradition, are valuable to family members, historians, and the community.  The records used to research family history are an important part of our documentary heritage providing a direct link to our common past.  Your family’s history lives in documents like photographs, letters, legal and financial papers, artistic works, news clippings, home movies, diaries and journals. All those materials that document interaction - and sometimes clutter our homes and offices - are the stuff of history. 

Why document? Our story and that of our ancestors is the story of our community, our country and our world.  That story becomes history when it is organized and preserved for future generations.  Documentation is the process of identifying, collecting and making available records of historical value; it supplies researchers with the raw materials of history and ensures a more comprehensive historical record when groups and topics out of the mainstream are included. The decisions we make in the present and will make in the future depend on our understanding – or misunderstanding – of the past. 

Here are some underused but invaluable resources for family history: 

Recipes and cookbooks 
One genealogy magazine stated, “Food equals nostalgia” – how true! Culinary history has become a rich resource used by social historians to understand local, regional and national history.  The sharing and passing-down of recipes ties us to our family, our ethnicity and to changes in American culture. Ingredients can help date a recipe. For example, processed  foods date primarily from the 20th century.  Frozen foods weren’t available commercially until 1924, although canned foods were produced in England as early as 1815. 

Quilts and textiles 
Every quilt has a story that should be told. Many times they were used to record events such as births or marriages, but the fabrics and patterns can give us clues as well. Fabrics can indicate the owner’s economic situation: small pieces sewn together to make a larger quilt patch may indicate a lack of funds so every scarp was saved, while large uncut patches of fabric or fancy paisleys may show a woman who had the means to purchase fabric specifically for quilt-making. When wars ended, many quilters used the fabrics from uniforms of returning and lost soldiers to make quilts. Signature quilts were made as gifts for prominent community members, such as clergy. A census record in thread! Clothing fashions also responded to current events – women’s clothing became less structured and skirts shorter as more women worked outside the home; military styles in both men’s and women’s dress show up during and after wartime.

Artifacts such as vintage tools, toys, artwork, etc. 
Start investigating the stories behind your family treasures. How did it come into your possession and who owned it originally?  Are there stories associated with it?  It seems like nothing evokes memories and conversation like old toys! Toys, like the textiles mentioned earlier, are reflections of popular culture, trends and fashions. And don’t forget about those professional tools – not only who used them, but how they were used. Finally, commemorative items like medals, ribbons or pins reflect the ways in which we choose to memorialize special events. The fact that the item was saved shows the importance attached to it by its owner. Notice, though, that these items are not as personalized as similar items are today which makes recording to whom they belonged and why even more imperative.

Oral histories and "family lore" 
The artifact we’ve just discussed can be our touchstones: they evoke memories and bring forth stories. Oral history is a method of gathering and preserving memories that relies on the spoken word. It is both the oldest type of historical inquiry, predating the written word, and one of the most modern, now using digital technologies. It presents the opportunity for those people “hidden” from history to have their voices heard and can provide new insights that challenge our view of the past. And don’t dismiss family lore! There’s often a kernel of truth to be found in it, it’s just gotten embellished over the years. 

How do we document using these non-written sources? Documentation often involves creating new records to help fill gaps in the historical record. Think who, what, when, where and why? Standardized documentation forms are very helpful. When encountering a group or collection of items, be aware of items stored together: sometimes one item gives a clue about another item stored with it, similar to what archivists call original order

Silver baby cup engraved "Mary Sherman Pomeroy from Uncle Porter, 1870"
The Pomeroy Collection holds the petite silver cup shown in the photo. It came into the collection in 2002 from an estate auction but, unfortunately, we had no one to interview regarding its origins and the people whose names are engraved on it. Additionally, an elegant silver cup, richly detailed and marked “English Sterling” on the bottom, seems somewhat out of place for rural Cortland County in the mid-Nineteenth Century. Would one have easy access to a purveyor of such an extravagant item?

We started with what we knew: we found a Mary Sherman Pomeroy born 1870 in Brooklyn, NY. Her father was Julius Pomeroy and her mother was Frances Elvena Sherman. Frances Elvena was born and died in Homer, Cortland County, New York - consistent with the location of the estate sale. Furthermore, Frances had a brother named Porter, also born in Homer. That’s our Uncle Porter! But Mary was born in Brooklyn and, as it turns out, that’s where her uncle, Porter Sherman, died. Living in Brooklyn around 1870 would certainly give more ready access to shops in New York City selling merchandise like an engraved silver piece.

Now we had who - Mary Sherman Pomeroy and her uncle Porter Sherman, what - an elegantly engraved sterling silver baby cup, when - 1870, where - Borough of Brooklyn, New York City and the Village of Homer. But we needed why: if Mary was born in Brooklyn in 1870 and Uncle Porter died in Brooklyn in 1901, why did this cup end up in Homer in 2002? An investigation of vital records, census data, court records and other sources helped us piece together the answer.

In 1858, Frances Elvena Pomeroy of Homer, Cortland County, married Julius Pomeroy, a young lawyer living with a relative in Brooklyn. Elvena, as she was known, had an older brother named Porter living in Brooklyn at the same time. Elvena and Julius settled in Brooklyn and baby Mary was born in 1870. Unfortunately, Probate records show that Julius died in 1877, leaving Elvena and 5 children. Soon after, Elvena moved back to Homer to raise her children in the house she and her brothers had inherited from their father in 1869, apparently taking the silver baby cup with the rest of the family’s possessions. Porter remained in Brooklyn until his death in 1901. The recipient of the little silver cup, Mary, married a young man from Homer named Lewis Tuthill in 1895 and moved to Minneapolis, Minnesota where she died in 1908 at age 38, having no children. Elvena outlived both Mary and Porter, dying in 1913.

A little silver cup unveils a family’s history. Who could have guessed it would end up in the possession of a cousin (fourth cousin twice removed, to be precise) in such a serendipitous manner as being spotted at an estate sale by someone who knew Bill Pomeroy’s passion for family history? Mary Sherman Pomeroy Tuthill has told us her story. 

Notes: here are some resources to help you document your family’s treasures

The Food Timeline http://www.foodtimeline.org/ 
Quilt History Timeline http://www.quiltstudy.org/discovery/resources/publications/downloads.html 
Fashion Institute of Technology Costume & Textile Collections http://fitnyc.edu/3425.asp 
Solemates: The Century in Shoes  http://www.centuryinshoes.com/ 
Graphic Atlas: identification of prints and photographs   http://www.graphicsatlas.org/