Friday, September 16, 2011

Update on the Central New York Genealogical Society's 50th Anniversary Conference, from the Vendor Committee

Our conference is truly "GOOD AS GOLD!

The Planning Committee of the Central New York Genealogical Society 50th Anniversary Conference is pleased to announce the vendors and exhibitors who will be participating in our “Good As Gold” Conference, October 14th and 15th, 2011 at the Buckley Road Comfort Inn in Syracuse, New York:

• The American Pomeroy Historic Genealogical Society
• Central New York Genealogical Society
• Cornell University Press
• Creative Memories
• Gaylord Brothers
• Half-Shire Historical Society
• Heritage Makers/Horse Cents Photography
• History Star Productions
• Industrial Color Labs
• Jefferson County Genealogical Society
• Lyme Heritage Center
• National Institute for Genealogical Studies
• New York Genealogical and Biographical Society
• New York State Council of Genealogical Organizations
• Onondaga County Public Library
• Onondaga Historical Association
• Oswego County Historical Society
• Pompey Historical Society
• State University of New York (SUNY) Press

The Vendor and Exhibitor Halls will be open to banquet and conference attendees, with limited vendor participation on Friday night, from 5:00pm through 8:30pm and full vendor participation on Saturday from 8:00am through 4:30pm.

Our vendors and advertisers have generously offered door prizes. Drawings will be held in Vendor Hall at 4:15pm Saturday following the workshops. Conference attendees must be present to win a prize.

Door Prizes to date include:

• Digital Photo frame valued at $150, donated by the American Pomeroy Historic Genealogical Association
• 1 year membership to the Central New York Genealogical Society, valued at $30.
• Family Archives Kit bundled with archival photo albums from Gaylord Brothers
• Photo basket from Heritage Makers/Horse Cents Photography
• Bundle of online genealogy courses valued at $900, from the National Institute for Genealogical Studies
• 1 year membership to the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, valued at $60.
• 2 $25 Dinosaur Bar-B-Que gift certificates donated by CNYGS.
• $25 Staples gift card donated by CNYGS.

In addition to these door prizes, each conference attendee will receive:

• A coupon for one free print up to 8”x10” with any retouching order over $29, from Industrial Color Labs
• A 20% Conference discount and free shipping on all orders placed at the Conference from SUNY Press.
• A free online course “Social Media for the Wise Genealogist”, valued at $89, or half off the cost of the online course “Methodology – Part I: Getting Started”, from the National Institute for Genealogical Studies.

Because we’ve received such a great response to our conference, we are extending our registration period. Late registrants (after September 15th) will not have their four surnames listed in the Syllabus.

If you’ve been considering attending, but thought you missed the deadline, don’t worry – send your registration in today to enjoy one of the premier genealogy events in the Central New York area! We look forward to seeing you at the Conference! Registration forms are available on the CNYGS website at: or e-mail

Tuesday, September 13, 2011

The Courage of Hannah Pearson Pomeroy, by Alethea Connolly

“God will not look you over for medals, degrees, or diplomas, but for scars.” - Elbert Hubbard (1856-1915)

When staff member Kate Pollack was transcribing several letters of Mary Spaulding Pomeroy [1785-1839] we discussed the harsh realities young women like Mary faced in the early 1800s. It was evident in the letters that Mary, a young widow living in Massachusetts, was dealing with sorrow and loneliness. A deep sadness and sense of isolation permeated her family correspondence. Despite the ultimate forward progress of the nation, and individual achievements and war time glory, these letters remind us that pioneer life was often a lonely, harsh struggle.

In Mary Spaulding Pomeroy’s case, strict religious beliefs shaped what was expected in handling life’s sorrows, what was acceptable to think, and say. A bereaved widow might mourn privately, but many daughters of Calvinist-trained clergymen were taught to avoid doubting the unseen wisdom and mercy of God, for such a questioning might bring on more misery as a divine punishment. And yet - many women and children, thrust into hardship, triumphed despite a boatload of grief dumped on their doorstep.

Shortly after reading about Mary Spaulding Pomeroy’s misfortunes, I discovered a Pomeroy family afflicted with extraordinary losses. I had been researching deeds at the Onondaga County clerk’s office. The grantor name on an 1867 Van Buren, N.Y. deed was Edward P. Pomeroy.1 When I checked our database to identify him, I learned he was one of fourteen children fathered by Rev. Thaddeus Pomeroy [1782-1858], a Congregational clergyman, who served many years in Gorham, Maine. 2

I examined the family births and deaths and learned that his mother, Catherine Pearson Pomeroy, died in 1831, when Edward was four, the same year his brother Thaddeus, and infant sister Catherine, died. Two years later, Harriet Karrist Ruberry Pomeroy, his step-mother, died.3 As I continued to read the family data file, I realized that only two of fourteen children born to Thaddeus Pomeroy (including those with his third wife Emily Bigelow) survived beyond age fourteen, most dying in infancy! Was this not a load of sorrow to carry?

Ten of these family deaths occurred in Gorham, Maine where Rev. Thaddeus was pastor between 1820 and 1840. What was going on in Gorham during those years? What virulent diseases had swept through, anchored in the town, and seemed to lay waiting for other victims in this unfortunate household? It is likely the great cholera epidemic of 1831, took three of them. Perhaps typhus. And then more cholera. Was there a genetic predisposition; a vulnerability?

It seemed hopeful that Thaddeus, and third wife Emily, might escape from this dark shadow of loss. But that did not happen. Their first three children died. Thaddeus and Emily moved to Onondaga County, with the two remaining children of his first wife Catherine Pearson, where they had many Pomeroy relations.4 While Thaddeus found periodic employment as a minister, he also turned to farming. Their hopes must have been buoyed by the fact that a son born in 1843, Henry Bigelow Pomeroy, was doing well as he became a young teenager. That hope was dashed in 1857, however, when Henry died at age fourteen. He was buried in DeWitt, N. Y.5 Rev. Thaddeus Pomeroy died the following year.

How do parents hold on to faith and hope enduring such tragedies as these? Had they done something wrong to bring on divine retribution? Beyond these troubling questions of punishment, guilt, and faith is another. What burdens of sorrow and fear did those two surviving children carry into adulthood? How did Hannah Pearson Pomeroy and her younger brother, Edward P. Pomeroy soldier on in their lives?


Edward married Mary L. Palmer and both lived for a time in Onondaga County, in DeWitt, and Van Buren.5 He was a teacher between 1846-1850, but later turned to farming.6 His name is on an 1863 Civil War enlistment register recording his residency as Van Buren. Property records show that he sold land in Van Buren, N. Y. in 1865.7 No war service records have been found so far. I could not locate Edward after these dates. He was not with his wife and two children, Charles and Addie, who, according to federal census records were living with her parents in Wayne County in 1870 and 1880.8 The 1880 census showed that Mary was divorced from Edward, so that explains the separation.

Three years ago, when I was examining a diary of Harry D. Pomeroy, a cousin of Edward, I saw a clipping pressed into the crevice of pages, a brief death notice printed in the smallest font I’ve ever seen. Only one short sentence reported that Edward P. Pomeroy had committed suicide on June 4, in 1888 while visiting his sister in Harpswell, Maine.9 A Maine newspaper obituary found soon after confirmed his death.10 At the time of finding his short obituary, I had not known much about his childhood or adult life. Now I do. Whatever burdens Edward carried, he had, it seemed, lost hope.


For Hannah Pearson Pomeroy Kellogg, her brother’s suicide, in her own backyard, must have dredged up painful emotions of the past. Hannah, as the eldest, had witnessed numerous family disasters, yet managed, to hold on to life. Before she was ten years old, she had lost her mother and four brothers and sisters. That is a lot of sadness. There is more. By the time she was twelve years old, two year old Thaddeus, and her stepmother had also been buried in the family plot. Only she and her brother Edward survived in the household until her father married Emily Bigelow in 1836.11

A stepmother might have been a relief, and possibly a support to a young teenage girl and a nine year boy, whose lives had been circumscribed by dreadful losses. Unfortunately, as shown, all three of Emily’s children died in the next three years. Two of these were twins. A fourth child, a son, Henry Bigelow Pomeroy, was born in 1843.12

What does it take to survive such experiences? Psychologists today speak of post-traumatic shock and severe emotional stresses as damaging to one’s personal development. There is much evidence to support that assertion. But, the truth also is, with due respect to the unique differences of DNA, outlook, and real life experiences, some children stagger, or plunge, forward, find some resilience, get engaged in some service, discover some creative supports, or just keep putting one foot in front of the other, carrying one’s cross, as some would say, without too much thought that this isn’t what life requires. Whatever it was, Hannah had it, or found it.


She was in her thirties when she finally left her father’s house. In 1855, she married an older man, Rev. Elijah Kellogg, a Congregational minister, who knew her father when the Pomeroys lived in Gorham, Maine.13

It is impossible without direct testimony, or letters, to assess whether Hannah found happiness at last, but at least their children survived into adulthood.14 Hannah and Elijah lived much of their life in Massachusetts and Maine. In the 1860s and 70s, Rev. Kellogg, for many years chaplain to seamen when living in Boston, embarked on a career of writing. In all, he had thirty books published, several popular series for boys including “The Pleasant Cove Stories,” “The Whispering Pine Series, “The Good Old Times Series.”15 This was not a dark and gloomy man.

The Kelloggs had two children, Frank Gilman and Mary Catherine, and both married, and had children. We also know that their father surrounded them with stories of strength, hope, and adventure because he created these stories. As adults, Frank and Mary Catherine lived on the same street in Melrose Highlands, Massachusetts for many years.16

Elijah Kellogg’s obituary in 1901, was an eloquent testimony to his unique career as an author, and a plain speaking minister.17 We know less about Hannah, as the role of “keeping house” was seldom noteworthy enough for journalistic tributes. She died in 1891.18 Her childhood was not the stuff of “Pleasant Cove” or “Good Old Times” but if stories of courage and resilience are sought, her life offers much to inspire.


Only the children of Catherine Pearson Pomeroy survived to bear grandchildren, who then married and had children of their own. The children of Hannah Pearson Pomeroy and Rev. Elijah Kellogg lived near each other on North Street in Melrose, Massachusetts much of their lives. Frank G. Kellogg was, in 1900, in the wholesale jewelry business, and was the father of three children – Frank C., b. 1881, Florence, b. 1885, and Chester E, b. 1888.19

Mary Catherine had married Harry Batchelder, and they had four children- Lawrence K., b. 1886, Alice E., b. 1888, Eleanor, b. 1897, and Hugh M, b. 1899. Mary Catherine had been a teacher before marriage; and Harry was in 1900 a bookkeeper in an upholstery business. 20

Do the Pomeroy, Kellogg and Batchelder descendants know that their grandmother triumphed through a trail a tears to bring their parents into life with hope, and strength and courage?

And what of Addie Pomeroy, Edward P. Pomeroy’s daughter, and Charles his son? Do their descendants know of the challenges that afflicted their ancestors?


1. Edward Pomeroy household, 1860 U. S. Census, DeWitt, Onondaga County, New York, P. 333, Dwelling 1410, Family 1414, National Archives microfilm 653_829. Also, Indenture, Onondaga County Clerk, Van Buren, New York, Edward P. Pomeroy, & Mary L. Book 163, P. 321, sealed 15 Apr, 1865, recd 13 Feb, 1867.

2. Hugh D. McLellan. History of Gorham, ME (Katherine B. Lewis), 1902, p. 726

3. Charleston Observer (South Carolina), Marriages and Deaths [database on-line], Provo, Utah, The Generations Network, Inc., 1998. Original data: Holcomb, Brent, Marriages and Death Notices from the Charleston Observer, 1827-1845, Greenville, South Carolina, A Press, 1980; also:, Maine Deaths and Burials, 1841-1910, Family History Library, Salt Lake City, Utah.

4. McLellan, op. cit., also, Maine Deaths and Burials, 1841-1910, Family History Library, Salt Lake City, Utah.

5. Onondaga County Public Library, WPA files, OCPL online []; also Dewitt North Orville Cemetery, USGenWeb Onondaga County, New York online [ HTM]

6. Thadeus Pomeroy household, 1850 U. S. Census, DeWitt, Onondaga County, New York, P. 364, Dwelling 1428, Family 1445; National Archives microfilm publication M342_570; also Edward Pomeroy household, 1860 U. S. Census, DeWitt, Onondaga County, New York, P. 333, Dwelling 1410, Family 1414, National Archives microfilm 653_829.

7. Indenture, Onondaga Count, New York, Edward P. Pomeroy and Mary L, to E. Bowman, Book 163, p. 321, Van Buren, Lot 22, sealed 15 Apr 1865, recorded: 13 Feb 1867. Also, National Archives and Records Administration (NARA); Washington, D.C.; Consolidated Lists of Civil War Draft Registration Records (Provost Marshal General’s Bureau; Consolidated Enrollment Lists, 1863-1865); Record Group Number: 110; Title: Records of the Provost Marshal General’s Bureau (Civil War); Consolidated Enrollment Lists, 1863-1865 (Civil War Union Draft Records); ARC Identifies: 4213514; Archive Volume Number: 3 of 3.

8., Rensalace Palmer household; 1870; Ontario, Wayne County, New York; Roll:M593_1112; P.322B; Image:651; Family History Library Film: 5526ll. Ranselaer Palmer household; 1880, Ontario, Wayne County, New York; Roll:944, FHF:1254944; P. 295D; ED: 184; Image:0292.

9. Clipping, Edward P. Pomeroy death, 1888 Diary of Harry D. Pomeroy, Onondaga Historical Association, Syracuse, NY.; Also, McLellan, op. cit.

10. Springfield Republican, Springfield, ME, 5 Jun 1888, e-mail of Cary Clements, Obituary of E. P. Pomeroy to Alethea Connolly, 4 Aug 2008

11. Albert A. Pomeroy, History and Genealogy of the Pomeroy Family Collateral Lines in Family Groups; Reprinted Higginson Book Company, 1912, Salem, Massachusetts. Also, Thadeus Pomeroy household, 1850 U. S. Census, DeWitt, Onondaga County, New York, P. 364, Dwelling 1428, Family 1445; National Archives microfilm publication M342_570.

12. Onondaga County Public Library, WPA files, OCPL online [];

13. Springfield Republican, Springfield, ME, 5 Jun 1888, e-mail of Cary Clements, Obituary of E. P. Pomeroy to Alethea Connolly, 4 Aug 2008; also U. S. Census, 1870, Harpswell, Cumberland, Maine; Roll:M593_540; P. 354A; Image: 182; Dwelling: 352, Family: 374; FHLF: 552039; Abiel Homes Wright, Story, song and sermon with an autobiographical sketch, p. 245, Googlebooks.

14. U. S. Census, 1880 Elijah Kellogg household, Boston, Suffolk, Massachusetts; Roll:555; FHF: 1254555; P. 321B; ED: 643; Image:0024

15. “Rev. Elijah Kellogg Dead, New York Times, March 18, 1901, online ; also Nathan Goold, “Rev. Elijah Kellogg And His Ancestry,” Portland Sunday Telegram, March 17, 1901: also Bowdoin College George J. Mitchell Department of Special Collections & Archives: Kellogg Family Collection..

16. U. S. Census, 1900, Melrose Ward 1, Middlesex, Massachusetts; Roll: T623_663; Page:6B, ED: 877, Frank Kellogg household, North Avenue Dwelling: 142; Family: 142. Harry Batchelder household (Mary C) Dwelling:145, Family 145

17. See footnote 15.

18. Hannah, P. Kellogg, Maine Death Records, 1617-1922 [database on-line], Provo, UT, USA.

19. U. S. Census, 1900, Melrose Ward 1, Middlesex, Massachusetts; Roll: T623_663; Page:6B, ED: 877, Frank Kellogg household, North Avenue Dwelling: 142; Family: 142. Harry Batchelder household (Mary C) Dwelling:145, Family 145.

20. Ibid.

Friday, September 9, 2011

Calvinism and Epidemic Disease in the Sussana Cole Letters, by Kate Corbett-Pollack

“I ask again how is it that the fall of Adam involves so many nations with their infant children in eternal death without remedy, unless that it so seemed meet to God? The decree, I admit, is dreadful; and yet it is impossible to deny that God foreknew what the end of man was to be before he made him, and foreknew, because he had so ordained by his decree.”

From John Calvin’s Institutes, Book III chap. 23 para. 7

The Puritan inhabitants of rural western Massachusetts, who were alive during the Federal Period, had tremendous hardship as a part of their daily lives. Epidemic disease carried off whole families and did not discriminate between those who were in the prime of life and the elderly or very young. Bacteria had not yet been discovered, and little was known about hygiene and sanitation. Death was often sudden and unexpected. The years following the American Revolution saw disease such as Typhoid Fever, Cholera, Dysentery, Tuberculosis, and a host of other sicknesses that dealt a fatal blow to its victim.

The American Pomeroy Historic Genealogical Association was recently lent, and allowed to photocopy a collection of letters written by a Western Massachusetts family living through this difficult time period, circa 1801-1840. It is possible to gain insight to the era and to the thoughts, beliefs and experience of this particular New England group from the collection of over 60 letters written by the descendents of Reverend Josiah Spaulding and Mary Williams, residing in the vicinities of Southampton, Buckland, Ashfield, Plainfield and Hawley.

Reverend Spaulding was a noted theological scholar, and his Calvinist beliefs were the unquestioned foundation of the Spaulding and Pomeroy families’ lives. Reverend Spaulding’s particular brand of religion functioned also to explain the epidemic disease that was wiping out the Spaulding and Pomeroy families at this time. It is difficult to imagine a belief system better tailored to the experience of the western Massachusetts families, who believed that the widespread death they were experiencing was the hand of God picking them off-and hopefully afterwards placing them in Heaven where everyone would be happily reunited. God surely would not kill so many, however, unless it were part of a larger plan that was not necessarily meant to be understood by mankind. The letters repeat the themes of death, the belief that it is God’s plan and that they must suffer due to the inherent depravity of human beings, and the hope that they will be part of the group chosen to enjoy eternity in Heaven.

John Calvin, writing in the 16th century, saw death all around him, and what is particularly awful, the death of children. His doctrine reflects his considerable consternation with the world he lives in, and he strives to find an answer for what would otherwise seem like meaningless destruction. Calvin’s experience in 16th century Europe can be compared to the experience of the Spaulding and Pomeroy families in the early 1800s in America, who are faced with one hopeless tragedy after another. The early Federal period of the United States saw a decline in the quality of medical care and medical education. In 1813, only seven medical schools were open in the United States. There was a shortage of teachers and facilities and little in the way of Public Health. Medicine still was based on the medieval “four humours”, and not much was known about how the body worked.

The Spaulding, Coleman and Pomeroy families of the Sussana Cole letters relied on doctors whose methods were at best worthless, and all too often fatally harmful. The family writes to each other of health and sickness, and reports on who has died. It is clear none of them expect to live very long. They speak of questionable medical cures and remedies given to them by doctors:

“You wrote you wished to hear of my health, it is very poor. My blood circulates rather better than it did. There is a doctor Young in town that came into town about seven weeks…he came to see me several times and ordered me to be taken out of my bed early in the morning and have three pails of cold water poured on my head. It seem to give my blood a quicker circulation but my nerves were rather to weak to bear the shock…”
From Ann Tubbs’ letter to her cousin Polly, August 17 (no year)

Several letters reflect the sheer desperation of families so touched by death, disease, crop failure, severe weather, infant mortality and lack of resources or help for any of it. Mary Spaulding Pomeroy (born 1785) in particular experiences her fair share of hardship. After losing her 3 year old daughter, Mary Ann, in 1814 while pregnant with her second child, her husband dies at age 33 on June 30th, 1815. Letters indicate also that she has lost several friends in these years, epidemic years in Massachusetts. By the time of her circa 1816 letter to her parents, Mary has been left alone in Southampton to care for her second daughter who is now ill.

"Dear Parents, I am still alive while the nearest of friends lies buried in the silent grave. I have great reason to mourn and lament his death for I now find how hard it is to live for my little girl has not been well since I came here…I know that I have the hardships to bear for there is nobody in the house but myself and my little girl."

Reverend Josiah Spaulding, Mary Pomeroy’s father, was the pastor at the Congregational Church of Christ in Buckland since 1785. Up until he died in 1823, the Reverend had witnessed widespread death due to epidemic disease, the causes of which were not yet understood, and thought by Spaulding to be the direct result of God’s wrath. Surely Calvinism was a doctrine fitted to his experience.

Reverend Spaulding believed that mankind was “in a state of probation” as a direct result of Christ’s crucifixion. He thought the possibility of damnation was an incentive for people to try to act in accordance to societal and scriptural rules of good conduct. If everyone could be saved and was seen as the same in God’s eyes, where was the motivation to be good and follow Christian doctrine? For Rev. Spaulding, who was in his 50s by the Federal period, Universalism must have been a threat in more than one way. The arrival of Unitarian Universalism was by him met with opposition, as it contradicted his more traditional Puritan-Calvinist beliefs of predestination and condemnation by God. Universalists believed that man was not predestined, and presented a picture of a loving and forgiving God who made salvation open to all human beings. They claimed that scripture supported this, and some went so far as to say there was no proof in the bible of Hell. Traditional (then called Orthodox) ministers were losing their congregations as a result of this new theory.

In a letter dated May 21st, 1808, Spaulding writes to his son, Josiah Jr., who is away at school:

“My dear Son,
The Lord keeps us alive, We are all of us still alive and in a measure of good health, which is thro’ the tender mercies of our God. Mr. Jabezel Brookin[s] wife was buried yesterday; she lived about 4 days after her child was born. There appear to be a calamity upon us, and the hand of God out against us; which ought to be for our humiliation, and prayerful consideration.
I think that you, nor any of us ought to despair, or to doubt the mercy of God; we may be guilty of great sin in this way.”

The reverend’s family felt as he did, and their letters are full of admonitions not to “murmur against God” in the face of constant trouble due to sickness and disease. The idea that God had a plan in place that had been in existence since before time and was being carried out in accordance to his will was the explanation for their hardship, although they do admit it does not make sense at times. Deborah Spaulding Trowbridge, Mary’s sister, wrote to her on May 28th, 1816, and addressed the death of Mary’s young husband, Isaac:

“But I often enquire why was he cut off in the middle age of life surrounded with so flattering prospects of seed time & harvest then am I silenced with a thought he was only lent to us from the Lord…and we ought to be careful not to murmur or complain of Gods dealings with us…”

It could be a momentary question, but never of faith itself, which the family reminds each other to keep in almost every letter. For the members of this religion, questioning it could mean even more death to their loved ones, and also the loss of explanation as to why tragedy was so commonplace for them. Suffering was a part of life, and ordained by God for reasons they should not try to understand. Deborah Trowbridge, writing to Mary Ann and David Pomeroy also to express her sympathies for the death of Mary Ann’s mother, Mary Spaulding, and of Mary Ann’s young son, David Alonzo, tells them in a letter dated May 12th, 1839:

“Man that is born of woman is of few days, and full of trouble, he cometh forth like a flower and is soon cut off and is here no more, this you feel to be a truth-do not murmur at god’s dealings with you.”

In Deborah’s April 17th letter of that year to Mary, she writes:

“All of us…may feel it is good for us to trust in god, tho he should slay us all…”

What happens in the afterlife is an unknown for this family-they are either saved or damned, according to the Calvinist belief in predestination, and it is worked out by God before you are even born. The idea that a life so grim and difficult would result in damnation because of predestination, and not because of behavior or piousness, must have been a particularly difficult thought for this family. Yet despite this belief, they reassure one another that God is truly good and merciful. Rufus Pomeroy writes to Mary Ann and David in 1839, also expressing sympathy for the loss of Mary Spaulding, who as we have seen, led a very short and tragic life:

“The way of God is a great deep, & his judgments past finding out. But amidst all the darkness of his providences, justice, & judgment are the habitation of his throne…You are allowed to indulge hope, that her death was precious in the eyes of the Lord, better than the day of her birth, which introduced her to a world of sin and sorrow & of death.”

It must have been an impossible thought for the Spaulding and Pomeroy families that the horrors of their lives were for nothing. As John Calvin sought to explain it, so they sought to believe him, and to defend him, as Reverend Spaulding did in his 1805 book, “Universalism Confounds and Destroys Itself”. If the family believes they might be going to hell, they do not write about it-but clearly it is part of their belief system. The Reverend devotes ample space to his thoughts on hell and what happens there in his book. Hell, he writes, is the utter loss of all hope. Hope is the one thing the family can cling to, to get them through their trials. Without hope, they do not have much else.
And, ‘When hope is cut off,’ the Reverend writes, ‘the soul dies, and not before’.


Boettner, Loraine. “Calvinism in America,” Studies in Reformed Theology vol 8., no. 16. (1998)

“Changing Medical Practices in Early America,” by Laurie Trask Mann. Updated 12/03/2008.

Everts, Louis H. History of the Connecticut Valley in Massachusetts, (Philadelphia, PA: 1879),

Foster, Reverend Frank H., Ph.D April 4, 2011. “The Eschatology of the New England Divines,” ch. 5. Creation Concept Blog,

“History of Medicine 1800-1850,” Wellness Directory of Minnesota, 2003.

O’Donnell, George T. “Causes of Typhoid Fever in Massachusetts,” American Journal of Public Health 10(6) (1920): 517–520.

“Cholera Epidemics in the 19th Century” Contagion: Historical Views of Diseases and Epidemics. Harvard University Library Open Collections Program,

Spaulding, Rev. Josiah. Universalism Confounds and Destroys Itself. Northampton, Mass, 1805, Google Books edition.